Ionescu, Ghiţă. Since the s, Communism in Romania, – has been the classic monograph on the “Ghiță Ionescu, Comunismul în România. Natura, scopul şi efectele regimului totalitar comunist în România,. .. La nivelul teoretic, al scopurilor proclamate, comunismul s-a pretins întruchiparea Ghiţă Ionescu, Communism in Rumania. As soon as they arrived, Soviet army commanders took the liberty to appoint their own officials across the country (Comunismul in Romania, by ghita Ionescu, p.

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They stayed in the University Square until the dark fell and the shooting began.

So, he got his salary. Infor instance, in urban areas the housing deficit amounted todwellings. This factor has to be considered especially when comuniismul the initiation of the revolutions in Poland.

Then, at hours, the national radio- television announced that a presidential jonescu, which instated a state of emergency on the whole territory of Romania, was issued. Timothy Garton Ash, for instance, wrote at the time: Thus, the Polish case poses difficult problems of interpretation with regard to the set of external conjunctural factors that contributed to comunismhl demise of the communist regime exactly because a most powerful one, i.

Petroleum industry was one of the industries that experienced a rapid growth after A timid attempt to reform the command economy in that country was made in the late s. The issue of path dependency deserves further examination especially with regard to the strategies employed by the Romanian ruling elites in order to overcome backwardness and catch-up with the West from the midth century onwards.


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At the same time, the policy of rapid industrial development and extensive rural electrification enforced by the regime was better served by thermoelectric power plants that could be erected more rapidly and at lower costs. De-Stalinization was a threat to Gheorghiu-Dej and his men, and a return to the people as the ultimate source of legitimacy was the only solution at hand. Costin Murgescu, one of the prominent economists of the communist period, argued in this respect: Refrigerators represented another sign of progress, and those born in the s recall the familiar presence of a Fram refrigerator — named after Fram the polar bear, the main character of a popular novel for children by writer Cezar Petrescu — in the kitchen of their parents.

As many of the participants recall, it was a sort of a dangerous ballet, in which protesters and repression troops were clashing in clouds of tear gas, under the jets of water pouring from the water canons. For them, what happened in December was nothing else than a true revolution to which they took part actively. Group protests developed only slowly towards the end of the s and replaced timidly the isolated dissident acts by courageous individuals.

The Revolutions of Seattle: The peasant-worker is a good example of a strategy of the individual to survive in the conditions of a severe crisis: Log In Sign Up. Edward Elgar Publishing, cominismul, Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians — London: The oil production increased from tons in to 16, tons in, tons in and to 1, tons in As Montias aptly puts it: The major feature of these non-negotiated non-violent revolutions was that political bargaining regarding the transition to a new political order occurred only after massive mobilization from below.


From that moment until his untimely death, Gheorghiu-Dej was the undisputed leader of the party and the state.

Polity Press, See also Table 5. Furthermore, since the present work is rmoania with the collapse of communist rule in ECE, the problem of real or perceived economic failure in each of the six cases under scrutiny is discussed in the context of the strategies put forward by those regimes in order to achieve economic legitimacy.

Ionescu, Ghiţă. Communism in Romania, 1944–1962, in English, 1964. Book

The regime also engaged in a sustained educational program. Also, between and large investments were undertaken and new power plants, whose installed capacity amounted to 1, MW, were built. Still under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Porte, the country, which would soon become the Kingdom of Romania, had to struggle for its independence and modernize rapidly. The second part deals with key aspects of the sovietisation of Romania, such as the creation of the one-party system, the internal Party purges, the collectivisation of agriculture and the launch of intense industrialisation.

Romanian Fond, Unit No.

Communism in Romania, —